Child?What is a child? How their minds are different from others and what are the moral implications of these differences for how should we treat them. As child psychology will help you to understand the every aspect of child’s behaviour.
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According to Jean Piaget, Father of Child Psychology Children are Little Scientists who explore their own word and that’s true.
Little Scientist naturally explore and interact with objects, people and concepts even without the help of an adult. For example; while playing with a ball and comparing it to the moon.
Children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults . They are born with a very basic Mental structure on which all subsequent learning and knowledge are based.
Children construct an understanding of the world around them , then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment.
Jean piaget, believed that the child was very much the active learner in an age-stage process.
Children learn best by doing, so this type of playing is a natural fit for their development.
As development plays a very important role in child’s overall life the most important development is cognitive one- our intellectual development .
According to piaget, children go through four main stages or changes which spans into adulthood and greatly shapes their cognitive thoughts and helps in personality development.
1. Sensory Motor Stage
This stage starts from birth to 2 years. Children explore their environment and gain knowledge by their sensory experiences and manipulation of objects around them. They touch things, lick them bang them together and put them into their mouth . Your child also do that, isnt it? 😅
2. Pre-Operational Stage
Stage from 2-6 years, Operation means mental process. This stage is very crucial for ones Language Development. Children learn through free play, transductive reasoning comes in this stage which means not so logical reason. Children believe that action cannot be reversed or undone. For example- a 3year old can’t think of ice becoming water and vice versa. Animism thought developes where child believes of a non-living thing as living thing which has feeling in it.
3. Concrete Operational Stage
This stage starts from 7-11years. Here child develops reversibility, classification comes at this stage. He or she develops logical thinking sbout concrete objects. Transitivity develops – the ability to recognize relationships among various things. This stage is also known as later childhood or gang age.
4. Formal Operational Stage
Stage from 12 year and up. Here in this stage, child develops logic about abstract things. This is the age of divergent , convergent and creative thinking. Children begins to understand the Hypothetical -deductive reasoning – ability to think scientifically by generating predictions about the solution of a problem.
All children go through these stages naturally. But when given the right training and exposure to right concepts to their exsisting knowledge it will be more facilitative and broader in quality.
Parents play a very important role in this process. A good and facilitative environment by parents is a must in appropriate acquisition of these stages.
Children are the future of country ,they need a proper care in their early childhood stages, we must provide a healthy and knowledgable environment which would be fruitful for his overall development.
Are you providing a better environment to your child for his betterment of life?
Heredity and Environment both have their share in constructing the life and personality of the individual. In some cases Heredity may overpower development and Environment strongly influence growth and development. No person can be born without heredity and genes cannot develop without proper environment.
A child’s development represents the interaction of Heredity and Environment.
Heredity provides the basis for the development of human personality. Heredity is what a person is born with. It is responsible for all the unborn trait. All the qualities that a child has inherited from the parents is called heredity.
Heredity (nature) is defined as the totality of biological acquired factors and is an important factor in the life of an individual.
Heredity strongly influence on Physical and Social Development. Different characteristics of growth and development like intelligence, aptitudes, body structure, colour of hair, height, weight and colour of eyes are highly influenced by heredity.
At the time of conception the union of male and female germ cells causes fertilization of the ovum. The fertilized egg is known as zygote. Zygote has 46 chromosomes; i.e. 23 pair of chromosomes are there in a zygote.
Environment (nurture) is the totality of conditions which plays an important role in bringing the modification of our behaviour. It includes all the aspects of our surroundings except one’s genes. These factors influence the development of an individual.
Environment consists of various types of forces like physical, social, moral, cultural emotional etc.
If your living environment is cramped, noisy and filled with aggression your child’s development can be affected.
Environmental factors vary in their immediacy to the individual; they involve multiple layers of forces for example friends family, neighborhood , school systems and local governments.
Environmental influence has a prevalent effect on personality trait as well. It also influences in terms of Parenting influences a child’s personality.
According to Woodworth, both are equally essential in the growth and development of the child. Individual is the result of multiplication between heredity an environment.
Development can be broadly understand by different stages which occurs in one’s life. There are four stages of development.
Infancy is the stage from birth to two years old. It is the period of swift growth after birth. A surprising amount of growth and development happens during infancy : babies learn to crawl, communicate and laugh, among many other things.
The development of language starts from this stage. During infancy child transitions from a dependent toddler to an active child. He or she is now able to crawl and walk. In terms of physical development, the stage of infancy records the most growth.
Infants are born with certain abilities already developed. For example ability to smell. During this stage babies also develop bond of love and trust with their parents.
It is a stage from 2-6 years old. In this stage children spent a lot of time playing with toys. They exibhit a wide range of emotions. Repeat words or sentences often overheard. A child begin to run, climb and throw. Starts to understand time and the idea of counting. Like to sing, dance and playacts😁 can use the toilet their own.
At this stage children do not attend the traditional system of education but they start going to pre-school or play schools. Children are self-centric (egocentric) at this stage. It is a sensitive period of language Development.
Later childhood from 7-11 years old.
Here, a child joins the traditional system of education that is why this stage is known as elementary school age. This stage is also known as troublesome age. Children devote more time with peer groups. They can identify, affirm, and share their personal gifts with others. Develop an understanding and practice of good personal hygiene and healthy habits.
Here, development of children’s creative potential begins. Child develop skills to handel their emotions and feelings. Experience of this period influence the child throughout his life.
Adolescence or puberty from 13-19 years old. This is the most critical stage of person’s life. It is a stage of stress and strom. At this stage , adolescents face many social , biological and personal change. This is the transitional stage; where a person transits from a child to an adult.
Adolescents face many adjustment problems. The primary developmental task of adolescence is identity formation. Adolescence is an important period for cognitive development as well, as it marks that how an individual think and resin about his problems and ideas.
Moods swings are the characteristics of adolescence and there is some struggles with issues of self esteem. A persons become aggressive at times. In this stage thoughts become more abstract and logical.
Social development for all people begins at birth and continues throughout life. It means investing in people.
Social Development in child means that how he develops friendship and other relationship as well as how a child handles conflict with person. It is also a process by which a child learns to interact with others around them. As they develop and perceive their own individuality within their community and they also gain skills to communicate with other people and process their action.
Social development can actually impact many of the other form of development in children. A child’s ability to interact in a healthy way with the people around them can impact everything from learning new words as a toddler, to being able to resist peer pressure as a high school student to successfully accepting the challenges of adulthood.
A healthy social development in child can lead to a great language skill, build their self esteem ,strengthen their learning skills and developing a positive attitude.
How to encourage social development in children?
Well every parent want their child to be successful and maintain a healthy and secure relationship with the community. You are your child’s best teacher. The early childhood years are not only a time for taking first step or for saying first word. They are also for their better relationships with other. These first skills are very important as they form a foundation for a child’s ongoing development and will affects his mental health and well-being.
Encourage social development in children by :
Providing them a nuturing environment, as they receive love and affection from parents.
Let them make decisions , making positive choices about personal and social behaviour will be key to your child’s success in life.
Encourage social activities , this will get your child to feel more comfortable with social situations.
Also Support your child to develop trust in other consistent adults .
Acknowledge your child’s feelings.
Social development and interaction are very important for each and every person for his betterment of life and to form a healthy relationship with other people.
Are you aware about your child’s social development?
Is your child’s behaviour is aggressive? Does he/she gets irritated, annoyed or nervous?What is the reason behind it?
Behaviour is that how one conducts themselves Its their action, reaction and function in response to everyday situation and environment.
Behaviour relates to one’s growth and development. Normal behaviour is a sign of good mental health and well-being of a child, and it affects the overall development.
There are many things that can cause child to have temper tantrums, emotional outburst and general “bad” or unexpected behaviour. These may can include biological reasons, like being hungry or overtired. It can also include emotional reasons like not being able to cope with or describe their feelings. Their environment can also influence behaviour. Physical illness disabilities, malnutrition and perceiving the world differently are the causes to this.
If you are a parent you have probably dealt with your child’s aggressive , annoyed and irritated behaviour. So what can we do ,to prevent child’s abnormal behaviour?
Firstly ,just try to understand your kid before punishing him for such a bad behaviour. As this is not the right way to deal with his/ her aggressive behaviour.
Try not to overreact
Talk to your child
Do what feels right. What you do has to be right for your child, yourself and the family.
Offer appropriate rewards
Catch your child being good
Don’t give in to tantrums or aggressive behaviour
Show your child how you feel
Listen to them
Keep things simple and positive
Give children responsibility and consequences
Maintain a sense of humour
Make your child feel important
Help your child find new ways to deal with their anger
Avoid encouraging toughness
Control your own temper
Occasionally, aggressive behaviour can form serious behaviour disorders or mental health problems. If your child’s aggression is serious or is not responding to discipline,it’s time to seek a help. Talk to your paediatrician.
Why is it important to learn language at early age?
Well, Speech, language and communication skills are crucial to young children’s overall development. Being able to speak clearly and process speech sounds, to understand others, to express ideas and interact with others are fundamental building blocks for a child’s development.
Language development is the process by which children come to understand and communicate language during early childhood.
It is of the the important aspects of cognitive development. In language Development we acquire the ability to learn, use, comprehend and manipulate skills of language.
Developing language skills is of absolute importance for young children’s success later in life both as social beings and in pursuing an education.
From birth up to age of five children develop language at a very rapid pace. In general girls develop language at a faster rate than boys. More than any other aspect of development, language development reflects the growth and maturation of the brain.
Did you know that you can start teaching your baby to talk even before he or she is born? Studies have shown that babies can recognize music and other sounds that they experience while in the mother’s womb.
Towards the end of pregnancy, a fetus begins to hear sounds and speech coming from outside the mother’s body. Infants are acutely attuned to the human voice and prefer it to other sounds. Between three to six months most infants has the ability to mimic sounds , inflections,and gestures. Babble for attention , cry differently out of pain or hunger, blow bubbles, respond to changes in a tone of voice.
Between nine and twelve months babies may begin to listen when spoken to, understand gestures, responds to simple requests, shout and scream, know their own names, understand “no”, use “mama” and “dada”for any person.
During the second year of life language development proceeds at very different rates in different children. Between 12-15 months child begin to recognize names, laugh approximately, use partial words, ask for help with gestures.
At 18 to 24 months of age toddlers come to understand that there are words for everything and their language development gains momentum. About 50 of a child’s first words are universal: names of foods, animals, family members, toys , vehicles, and clothing. Usually children first learn general nouns, such as “flower” instead of “dandelion,” and they may overgeneralize words, such as calling all toys.
Three to four-year-olds usually understand most of what they hear, can converse , use pronouns correctly, tell stories. At the age of five most children can talk constantly, follow three consecutive commands, use generally correct grammar.
Six year-olds usually can correct their own grammar and mispronunciations. Most children double their vocabularies between six and eight years of age and begin reading at about age seven. A major leap in reading comprehension occurs at about nine. Ten-year-olds begin to understand figurative word meanings.
Adolescents generally speak in an adult manner, gaining language maturity throughout high school.
Role of Parents
Language development is enriched by verbal interactions with other children and adults. Studies have shown that children of talkative parents have twice the vocabulary as those of quiet parents.
In addition language-based interactions appear to increase a child’s capacity to learn. Parents should encourage their child’s Language Development by:
talking to them as much as possible and giving them opportunities to respond, perhaps with a smile; short periods of silence help teach the give-and-take of conversation.
Addressing the baby by name.
Avoiding pronouns and articles.
Expand on toddler’s single words.
Put words on the child’s gestures.
Ask your 3 year old child yes or no questions.
Talk about what the child and parent are doing each day.
By this, Language Development is very important for child better growth and development it affects its overall development in a positive way , one just need to be more focused.
Are you focusing on your child’s Language Development or not?